Jesus the Marketing Superstar
(This article is the first article of the book, Cheriyan Menacherry, Jesus in the Marketing Strategy: Engaging the Words of Jesus, Blessed Hope Publishing: Chisinau, Moldova, 2021, pp. 5-31).
1 Jesus the Marketing Superstar
It may sound strange to call Jesus the greatest genius marketing strategist of all time, a marketing super star, but it is a fact recognised by some marketing experts. Darren Shearer, the founder and managing director of High Bridge Books, wrote: “Considering that one out of every three people in the world claims to be a follower of Jesus, he is unquestionably the greatest marketer in history.”
The various research studies and publications linking Jesus and His church to marketing strategy show that this is no longer a strange topic.It is noteworthy that some research studies linking Jesus and the Church to marketing strategy are not in theology, but in philosophy, for example, in Management Sciences (Marketing) at the Faculty of Management Sciences of a Technical University with the title of a research paper for a PhD: “The use of Marketing Tactics by the Church in Fulfilling its Social Mandate…. Nowadays, more and more lay people who have excellent marketing skills are occupying important positions in the church and are using marketing tactics effectively in the Church.
It may seem that Jesus and marketing are on completely different plains, especially considering that marketing strategy is a business of making money, or rather a money-making machine. Jesus had strongly protested turning the Jerusalem temple, his Father’s house, into a marketplace (Jn 2:12-22). But on closer analysis, one can see that Jesus himself was using the marketing strategy of his time. If one sees some evils in the application of the marketing strategy, one cannot see the entire marketing system negatively. Just as some people are against the use of modern electronics, computers and mass media in the church because they see the evils of such techniques.
Marketing strategy, like any kind of modern electronics, computers and mass media, is an instrument; it can be used for good and for evil. That some use this tool for evil purposes does not detract from the immeasurable good that is in marketing in getting goods to people efficiently. Some of the good marketing tactics can not only be used but have been used by the Church to spread its message adgentes. In this, the Church followed and still follows the example, or rather the mission, of Jesus.
Jesus did not simply want to remain silent about the Kingdom of God for which he had come. He was vehemently committed to the spread of the Kingdom of God. Even the fact that the Father sent His only Son into the world was a heavenly marketing strategy to save humanity by spreading the Kingdom of God. Jesus wanted to spread the Kingdom of God: for this he not only prayed to his Father, but he made plans and strategies. Just like the boss of a big company sends a representative to sell the products, Jesus also chose his disciples as representatives to preach the Kingdom of God (Mt 28:19). He did not simply establish the church and leave it to the wind and the waves, but he organised the church and chose suitable people to lead it through the centuries.
One element of the marketing strategy is the product. In a broader sense, the “Kingdom of God” is the product, Jesus offered the product the kingdom of God. For whom is this product, the Kingdom of God, intended? This is where the marketing aspect comes in: the people. Another element of marketing is promotion. The proclamation of Jesus can be understood as promotion. Connected to promotion was the selection of Jesus, his apostles. One can compare Jesus sending his twelve apostles with a manager of a big company sending his representatives with marketing strategies to promote the company’s product. One of the marketing strategies is to find a place where people need a certain product. Everyone has a need, but not everyone has the need for all things. Jesus knew the place where people were in need. Obviously, the place is an important aspect of where Jesus meets people or where people come to him. That is exactly where Jesus was, where people were in need, promoting the Kingdom of God. Yes, message, not manipulation in advertising. For example, he met the Samaritan woman at the well and the paralytic at the pool of Beth-Zatha (John 5:1-16). He preached to the crowds in the mountain valley. The disciples were sent to different places, “to all nations”, to preach.
CEOs of car companies that make big luxury cars will not put their billboards in the area where poor people live. They put their commercials on the posh TV or internet channels to capture the attention onto the very rich to the expensive cars. Now there are commercials for billionaires to experience Zero Gravity in space for a few minutes! Such promotions will not appear on the usual TV channels. Generally, marketing promotions target the common people, then the rich and then the super-rich. The poor will not be on the radar of marketing strategists. Here lies the stark contrast with Jesus’ strategy. He turned the entire marketing strategy on its head. Jesus’ marketing strategy starts with the very poor. His sales-promoting Sermon on the Mount, for example, begins by addressing the poor. And with the principle of the Word turning into work, just as God turned His Word into work in creation, Jesus sought out the truly needy, the poor. Many eyebrows of marketing strategists may have been raised when Jesus said it is hard for a rich person to enter the kingdom of heaven. Yes, recognising need is one of the marketing strategies, but for obvious reasons the strategists will go by the need of the rich. Everyone hopes that the Church will not unknowingly fall for this strategy. That is why, for example, a cardinal whispered to Pope Francis shortly after the election of the Pope that he must not forget the poor.
The business world is flourishing because of their passion to achieve the goal. After an in-depth study on the application of the marketing strategy for the church, Rufus Olufemi Adebayo proposed an addition to the 7Ps: 8Ps. One of the most important aspects of marketing strategy that the militant church takes up to fulfil its social mandate demanded by Christ is passion.
The Old Testament shows how to fulfil the greatest commandment. It is with passion. One is not to love God half-heartedly, but with passion. One must love God with all one’s heart, with all one’s soul and with all one’s strength. (Dt 6:4). The commandment to the Israelites was not only that they should carry the commandment in their hearts (Dt 6:6) and follow it passionately, but also that they should always diligently teach their children the commandments (Dt 6:7). Jesus also affirms the aspect of passion in loving God: love God with all your heart, soul, mind and strength (Mk 12:30). Jesus emphasises the same passion in loving one’s neighbour. Yes, one should not love one’s neighbour casually, but passionately, just as one loves passionately oneself (Mk 12,31). The scribe, recognising the necessity of passion in fulfilling the commandment to love God and neighbour, recognised that this passion in fulfilling the commandment is much more than all burnt offerings and sacrifices. (Mk 12:33).
The progress of an organisation depends on the passion of its members. The word “militant church” also demands passion from the believers to live up to the teaching of Jesus in service to fellow human beings and also to be zealous in spreading, proselytising and promoting the teaching of Jesus.
One can imagine that St. Paul observed the passion of the businessmen of his time who took all the trouble to travel to various distant lands to sell their products and also to collect raw materials, for example, spices from distant lands. With the same passion as the businessmen, St. Paul undertook various hard and dangerous journeys to spread the message of Jesus Christ and to establish various churches. St Paul passionately accepted his Master’s commission to preach to all nations. In the course of his ministry, the Apostle Paul covered more than 10,000 miles, undertook hard and dangerous sea voyages, experienced the dangers of the sea, suffered shipwrecks, faced the dangers of robbers, with his own people, with gentiles, etc. (cf. 2 Cor 11:25-27); several times he was in prison and experienced persecution and founded at least 14 churches. The Acts of the Apostles records, apart from Israel. three separate missionary journeys which took Paul through many places in Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria and many other regions. His journey to Rome as a prisoner and his preaching in Rome helped him to spread the gospel passionately.
Again, because of his passion for the cause of Jesus Christ, he wrote several letters, so that about fourteen of the 27 books of the New Testament are traditionally attributed to him.
But he did not adhere to a single church. After establishing a Christian community in one place, it was again passion that drove him to travel on to other places. He did not leave a church because he did not like it, but he had a passion to make the message of Jesus known in other places.
Jesus exhorts his disciples not to be discouraged if they are not accepted in one place. They must go to another place to passionately spread his word. Shaking off the dust when they leave a place that is rejected by others can also be seen from another perspective. The disciples must not remain stuck in one place. They must diligently preserve the pilgrim aspect of the Church by going to different parts of the world to proclaim the good news to the whole world. This pilgrim aspect of the Church is also reflected in the pilgrimage that people are eager to undertake. People can also make small local pilgrimages with passion. Parents and grandparents take their children not only to their own parish, but also to other churches in the area. This also shows the aspect of the pilgrim church. But the far-flung pilgrimage consists of finding a fellow human being in need and helping him or her passionately, with all one’s heart, soul, mind and strength (cf. Mk 12:30).
Another important element of marketing is the price. For the Kingdom of God, people must pay a price, e.g., renunciation, even self-renunciation. A young man came to Jesus with the desire to inherit eternal life (Mk 10:17). The man knew that one cannot inherit eternal life for free; he obeyed all the commandments (Mk 10:18-20). Some marketing strategists conceal the high cost of their product because they fear people will not be interested in it.
Jesus did not hide the fact that the higher the price of a product, the higher its value. Eternal life is a higher value product. People must count the cost worthy of this premium product. Jesus puts a higher price on the product, eternal life. He clearly told the young man that it was not enough for him to just obey the commandments; he must pay more: “You lack one thing; go, sell what you have, and give to the poor….” (Mk 10:21).
One can see Jesus applying the 4 or 7 basic Ps of marketing strategy: Product, People, Place and Price. Demand is a very important element, even though it is not one of the 7 Ps of marketing strategy. Marketing strategists know that there is a close relationship between supply and demand. The supplier has to look where there is more demand for his product, and he has to channelise his product. Since demand also depends on people’s needs, not all products will be in equal demand in every place. Suppliers will go by the basic needs of the people and accordingly produce more to meet the basic demand of the people.
When Jesus preached, he knew what the basic need of the people were: the people were hungry, and he multiplied the bread to feed the people.
Even though reward is not one of the 7 Ps of marketing strategy, strategists use it. A product is better promoted when the purchase is associated with a reward. In the face of persecution and suffering, Jesus motivated people with reward: those who endure persecution and suffering because of Jesus. Instead of becoming sad, they should rejoice and be glad in the face of trials and tribulations, for their “reward is great in heaven….” (Mt 5:12).
Jesus recognised the importance of reward when he did not tell the rich man to simply leave his possessions and follow him. There is a reward associated with his renunciation, “…you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me.” (Mk 10:21). Failure to raise awareness of the reward is a marketing mistake. People are not willing to leave what they have if they did not know what better gain would come from leaving one. Example: In a supermarket, a little girl of 5 years accompanied by her mother took a packet of sweets. She liked the sweets very much and held them to her chest all the time. When they were in the queue for payment, the little girl found a bottle of fruit juice colourfully decorated with different fruits. The child asked the mother if she could also take the fruit juice. At first the mother denied, the child insisted and was saddened. The mother was ingenious. She changed her strategy. She said to the child, of course you can take the bottle of juice, but you have to leave the sweet you took. The little girl was very happy to leave the candy behind. Like a magnet, the girl’s hand grabbed the bottle. She named all kinds of fruits on the label. And she kept the juice bottle very close to her heart. The girl sacrificed the sweets because she saw a reward in the fruit juice bottle.
This marketing strategy of reward can be seen in the Scriptures. The author of the Book of Wisdom knew that the wisdom of God is very important for people. The author of the Book of Wisdom applies the marketing strategy of reward. First, he describes the value of the spirit of wisdom that he himself received (Wis 7:7). And he compared wisdom to other worldly goods. He preferred it to sceptres and thrones (Wis 7:8). Precious stones and gold were like grains of sand, silver was like clay in the eyes of wisdom (Wis 7:9). Wisdom was worth more than health and beauty (Wis 7:10). No light can compare with the eternal brilliance of wisdom (Wis 7:10). After describing the value of the product of wisdom, came the marketing strategy of reward. He said that after he had received wisdom, all good things had come to him. Wisdom had given him untold riches that were in her hand (Wis 7:11).
With all the ups and downs in the reception of Jesus’ message, even the burning and banning of the Bible, the message is accepted by almost 40% of the world population. But the 40% are only those who are positive about the message in public. If the book Harry Potter has sold over 500 million copies worldwide, 6 billion copies of the Bible with translations in over 2,000 languages have reached the entire world. However, if we consider the people who practise the message of Jesus without knowing him or having heard of him, the percentage of people who are enthusiastic about the message of Jesus is enormously higher. In the Gospels, according to Harvey Cox, the Sermon on the Mount stands out: it is the most luminous, most quoted, most analysed, most controversial and most influential moral and religious discourse in all of human history. The Sermon on the Mount is Jesus’ fifth symphony, his Mona Lisa, his masterpiece.
There are reflections on Jesus’ marketing strategies that can be applied to business. For example, Jesus was very effective because of his storytelling way of delivering his message.
We all live in a world of advertising, billboards and posters on the roadsides and rooftops. Advertising is omnipresent, day and night, outside and inside the home. As soon as one turns on the TV or the internet, one is surrounded by advertising and publicity, whether or not one like it. Companies and corporations send their representatives all over the world to promote their products. Advertising is one of the most important marketing strategies.
The antipathy towards advertising is because of the negative aspects of some advertising. But one must not forget that there are also positive aspects of advertising.
First, the dislike of advertising. Some see advertising as something evil. The historian Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) cannot think of any circumstances in which advertising would not be an evil.There are even harsher tones against advertising, portraying it as intellectual and moral pollution. It manipulates and is disingenuous.When a psychiatrist who was advertising treatments wanted to shake hands with another doctor, the latter replied, “Take your dirty, filthy, advertising hands off me”.
Advertising works according to the rule of one-way information from the producer to the consumer, not the other way round. What happens there is not a communication, but a command. The consumer has no other option but to accept the command. You can say there is freedom to buy. Freedom! With the indirect coercive techniques, the freedom of the consumer is already transformed into slavish coercion.
Advertising can make a luxury product seem necessary. For instance, the most expensive wine of 2021 costs $500,000 a bottle. This means that a bottle of wine costs more than the average house.A persuasive advertisement can convince a billionaire that this wine is necessary on his dining table. That is the persuasive dimension of advertising. Not only billionaires but also ordinary people are forced by an advertisement to believe that a luxury item is a very necessary thing.
There is another evil dimension. Some advertise dangerous products by using lies, deception and manipulation to create a craving, an addiction to such substances in potential consumers. For this reason, some of these advertisements are now banned. Even if there is an advertisement, there must be a warning about the harmfulness of such products to health on the advertisement.
A less dangerous manipulation takes place in advertising. Instead of improving or changing the quality of the products, the manufacturer tries to manipulate and change the consumer’s taste through advertising so that the consumer finds the inferior product palatable. There is also a kind of fraud in advertising. A famous actor or a famous football player advertises a certain product. This actor or player may not even use the product in his life, but the people who see the product with the actor or player think they use it. This motivates the consumer who sees the advertising image to buy the product.
The negative aspects of advertising can be summed up as going from being an egoist to a selfish person, from being a producer who thinks only of his own benefit, to appealing to the consumer’s self-interest.
Advertising is like weeds among the wheat. In the world where there is the morality of altruism and self-sacrifice, the weeds of selfish advertising flourish. This kind of courtship has existed from ancient times to the present. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans advertised with papyrus.
At the time of slavery, there was inhuman advertising. For example, at the time of the Great Slave Auction in 1859, also known as Weeping Time, one advertisement read, “For Sale, Long Cotton and Rice Negros! A gang of 440, Accustomed to the culture of Rice and Provisions, among them are a no [sic] of good mechanics and house servants, will be sold on 2nd and 3rd day of March at Savannah by J Bryan.” People were advertised as animals, if not products. Nothing need be said about the deviltries of Nazi propaganda advertising against the Jews.
The fundamental difference from earlier times is that modern advertising lies spread unnoticed and faster like a pandemic, like the COVID 19 virus, for example, all over the world.
Now to the positive aspects of advertising. The force behind advertising is the free market, which is an expression of freedom and knowledge. In some authoritarian countries, there will be advertising, but everything will be controlled by the state. It is indeed remarkable that in the Nazi era, Jewish shops were denied access to the markets, they were not allowed to advertise.
Real advertising shows real freedom. Freedom because a manufacturer is free to sell his products and is allowed to advertise them. A consumer can freely follow the advertising and buy the product. The manufacturer can give information about the product through advertising and the consumer can easily gain the knowledge about the product by following the advertising. For instance, thanks to informative advertising, one does not have to waste time going to a jeweller to buy some iron bars.
There is another power of advertising that comes from the advertising agencies. Virtually all social activities are possible through the power of advertising. Almost all social and cultural events are probably only possible because of the power of sponsorship. The power of sponsorship brings more clients, customers and audiences. There is a mutual coordination. The more advertising there is, the more clients, customers and audiences there are. Many clients, customers and audiences bring more sponsors. This phenomenon helps to improve the quality of products and services to the maximum. I mean this theoretically. Because more sponsors for a product may not guarantee better quality than a product that is advertised less. There may be fraud through advertising. People may be tempted to resort to illegal means to get more clientele or more sales. Theoretically, one can say: the best quality will have more sponsors. This can be observed very well. If a sports person performs better than all the others on the field, that person will get more sponsors. Theoretically, one can say that advertising and sponsorship contribute to better performance and increase the quality of the products.
All advertising is based on the principle of product promotion. Advertising will repeat itself and always use new strategies. The manufacturer will never give up advertising. If one type of advertising is not effective, the manufacturer will switch to another advertising strategy. He is persistent. One way or another, he will sell his product. This persistence does not come from concern for the welfare of the consumer, but from the producer’s existential fear of losing a consumer. The persistence shows that the producer indirectly forces the consumer to buy his product. In this sense, the producer indirectly disrespects the consumer’s freedom. In the end, the producer not only does not respect the consumer’s freedom, but he is only interested in his own interest. The producer wants the consumer to buy only from his shops and from no one else.
This is exactly the difference between Jesus sending his twelve apostles and a manager of a big company sending his representatives with marketing strategies to promote the company’s product. It is significant that Jesus sends his disciples out of selfless love and respect for freedom. There must not be an iota of self-interest in the healing of the sick. The only interest is the welfare of the sick person.
Jesus criticises the advertising mentality also in prayer: “Beware of practicing your piety before men in order to be seen by them…” (Mt 6:1). Prayer must not be an advertisement to attract people’s attention: “When you pray, you must not be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, that they may be seen by men.” (Mt 6:5). Charitable works must not be an advertisement for praise: “When you give alms, sound no trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be praised by men.” (Mt 6:2).
Jesus also observed the selfishness of consumers. They were interested in the product, not the person. After the multiplication of bread, people wanted more of the product and wanted to make Jesus, their king (cf. Jn 6:15), a prominent producer. Many sought Jesus with the selfish interest of consuming more. To such people Jesus replied: “Truly, truly, I say to you, you seek me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate your fill of the loaves.” (Jn 6:22).
Even in the secular world, Christmas has its own meaning. Christmas has become a great marketing. Yes, a marketing that is linked to Jesus, the great marketing strategist. One can look at Christmas as great marketing in the world and associate it with Jesus only with mixed feelings. On the one hand, Jesus may reprove as he rebuked the people who asked him for more multiplication of bread: “You make my birthday to fill your coffers.” On the other hand, Jesus can rejoice because on his birthday people come together, even in the marketplaces, in the secular world. Yes, every gathering has something good about it.
Jesus knew that as a marketing strategy, the product had to address the basic needs of the people. Here, it might seem that Jesus is in line with the ancient Roman marketing strategy: Bread and Circuses (panem et circenses). The strategy is: after the bellies are filled, people’s attention must be diverted by the circus. They should not think deep about their own worth and see the immoralities and cruelties of the emperor and other rulers of the empire and rebel against them. Bread and games (panem et circenses), which goes back to the Roman satirical poet Juvenal, had a double meaning. On the one hand, Juvenal denounced the selfishness of ordinary Romans and their neglect of broader concerns and negligence in political engagement; on the other hand, the political system of the time used “bread and circuses” to manipulate the concerns of the people in order to satisfy them superficially.
After the multiplication of bread, the disciple delivered the product to the people. Here Jesus unconsciously follows the saying: “Sell them what they want and give them what they need.” Even though Jesus satisfied the hunger of the people, he knew the basic spiritual needs of the people that even they were not aware of. He taught the people to promote the spiritual product: “Do not labor for the food which perishes, but for the food which endures to eternal life, which the Son of man will give to you…” (Jn 6:27). Jesus is pointing out to marketing strategists to keep in mind not only the material but also the basic spiritual needs of people and to incorporate this principle into their marketing strategy.
One can very well conclude that the advertising mentality has penetrated the religious sphere. All religions, including Christianity, need to do some soul-searching to see if the advertising mentality is already prevalent in them. All religions compete, for instance, to have more followers. Is this about the love and welfare of the followers or about strengthening the structures of the respective religion? The more consumers, the stronger the structures of the religion. Is the Church tempted to use manipulative techniques to attract more people? If fewer people come to church to receive the sacraments, do the Church authorities develop a marketing strategy to attract more people to receive the sacraments? What is the first concern of the Church authorities when members leave the Church? Is the Church concerned about the reduced income in its coffers or about the welfare of the people leaving the Church? Is the Church’s existential angst, based on the principle of advertising, on the loss of consumers? Does the Church fall for the marketing temptation to put up more posters to attract the new consumers with the lost ones? The Church needs to understand that people are attracted to Jesus because his actions match his words. The billboards for Jesus are the Christians who engage in the world with the principles of Jesus and give a testimony to the world. Through the life of love of Christians, the world will come to know Jesus (cf. Jn 13:34-35).
The owners and CEOs of companies will identify the exact product even before the company is established and will focus on that product in production, setting strategies, promoting and selling it. Their concentration will not be diverted from the products of other companies. The church also does not need to be tempted to be distracted when it sees more and more people going to the stadiums and cinema halls and the churches are less and less filled with people. When Jesus saw that people were turning away from him, he even asked his disciples if they also wanted to leave him (Jn 6:66-67). In doing so, Jesus taught his disciples that they must focus on the specific, high-quality product that only the church can deliver to the people.
The instruction of the company manager who sends out his representatives to advertise that they must keep customers at all costs is not found in Jesus when he sent out his disciples. Jesus knew that many would not accept the disciples, let alone their preaching. What did Jesus instruct them to do? He did not instruct the disciples to use new advertising strategies to keep customers in line. Jesus respects people’s freedom. God knew when He created people in freedom that they could sin. Yet He did not abolish people’s freedom. Jesus’ mentality is that if people do not welcome them, simply leave: “if any place will not receive you and they refuse to hear you, when you leave, shake off the dust that is on your feet for a testimony against them.” (Mk 6:11). Even though the symbolic action of shaking off the dust expresses disapproval of those who reject the Word of God, the main reason for Jesus, apart from to show the pilgrim aspect of the Church as mentioned above, to leave people alone is that he respects their freedom.
Jesus points to a fork in the road to all people, and then he said to them: I am the way. But Jesus did not force the people at the fork in the road which way to follow. Jesus demanded an answer, but he did not want to force his message of salvation on the people by any kind of coercion. People had to accept his words in freedom and love. They have a choice: either they follow Christ, the way, or they reject him. Some people rejected him and crucified him. Since a “disciple is not above his teacher” (Mt 10:24), the Church must also be ready to be rejected. The disciple will be brought before the councils and whipped in the synagogues. They will be dragged before governors and kings for Jesus’ sake (cf. Mt 10:17-18). In the face of such rejection, the Church authorities may misunderstand and think that there is something wrong with the way they preach Jesus and try to diplomatically change Jesus’ message to suit the people’s taste.
The aspect of freedom and love can be seen today in various international, national, religious and charitable ventures. There, people are not promoted for the sake of profit, but to meet the needs and health of the people. For example, when the state advertises vaccinations against various diseases, there is no compulsion to do so because people’s freedom is respected. The churches promote the products of One World Shop and sell the products in the church. Their only aim is to help the poor nations that cannot compete with the gigantic markets of the world.
Even though the marketing strategists have suggested 7 Ps in the marketing strategy, they are unaware of one important P, which is the person, the self-giving of the person Jesus, so that the whole world may believe in him and have fellowship with him. There is a big difference between professional promoting and the preaching of Jesus and his disciples. While advertising mainly promotes a product, preaching is all about a person. Jesus, the preacher, is the preached one. He did not come into the world to advertise any products or to speak about any ideals, but ultimately to offer himself for the salvation of the world. So also, the disciples did not preach about a product, but about a person, the Person Jesus Christ and to have communion with Him: Repent and turn to God in freedom and love (cf. Mk 6:12).
Since the beginning of the Church, the Church has used a solid marketing strategy to present the person of Jesus Christ so that the world believes in Him and has fellowship with Him.
“In your opinion, who is the greatest marketing genius of all time? As I have asked other people this question, the most frequent responses have included Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Richard Branson, Lady Gaga, and other influential people.” Darren Shearer, “Jesus: The Greatest Marketing Genius of All Time”, https://www.theologyofbusiness.com/the-greatest-marketing-genius-of-all-time/
Darren Shearer, “Two Ways Jesus Did Marketing”, https://hbu.edu/center-for-christianity-in-business/2016/05/16/two-ways-jesus-marketing/
 Conrad, B. 2008. Church marketing: promoting the church using modern methods. A senior thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for graduation in the honours program, Liberty University Fall 2008. Felton, E.L. Jr, and Reed, M.M. 2001. Utilizing market segmentation in church marketing and management. Journal of Ministry Marketing & Management 1(6):31-41. Gilley, G.E. 2000. The market-driven church: a look behind the scenes.
 Rufus Olufemi ADEBAYO “The use of Marketing Tactics by the Church in Fulfilling its Social Mandate in KwaZulu-Natal”: Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy: Management Sciences (Marketing) in the Faculty of Management Sciences at the Durban University of Technology, June 2015.
 Weisman, M. 2012. Why you need passion to be a strong marketer (online). Available:http://www.likeable.com/blog/2012/10/why-you-need-passion-to-be-a-strong-marketer (Accessed April 2014). Shanmugan, P. 2011. The three pillars of leadership: passion, vision and mission (online). Available: http://advance.org/articles/the-three-pillars-of-leadership-passion-vision-and-mission/ (Accessed December 2014).
 8th P suggested by is passion: “the study proposes an additional 8th “P” which is philosophy and underpinned by the vision, mission, passion, planning and ethics which could enhance the church’s ability in presenting a value proposition to its congregation in a similar manner that other marketers do.” Rufus Olufemi Adebayo “The use of Marketing Tactics by the Church in Fulfilling its Social Mandate in KwaZulu-Natal”: Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy: Management Sciences (Marketing) in the Faculty of Management Sciences at the Durban University of Technology, June 2015. p. iii.
 Ryan Nelson, “Paul’s Missionary Journeys: The Beginner’s Guide,” Jul 6, 2020 | Bible topics, https://overviewbible.com/pauls-missionary-journeys/
 The authorship of some letters attributed to him is disputed
 “Frequently, marketers try to hide the cost of what they are offering, fearing that the cost might scare people away. Jesus did exactly the opposite. Jesus asked for big commitments so audaciously that, at first, it almost seems like he was trying to discourage people from accepting his message and becoming his follower. Of course, it’s not that he was trying to discourage people from following him. Rather, he wanted them to count the cost of what he was offering.” Darren Shearer, “Two Ways Jesus Did Marketing”, https://hbu.edu/center-for-christianity-in-business/2016/05/16/two-ways-jesus-marketing/
 “Marketing refers to channelling the gap between service and product providers to service and product seekers. Also known as a way of satisfying needs. The Marketing Mix or the “4 Ps” are: product, place, promotion, price. The concept of the “4 Ps” has been replaced by the concept of the “7 Ps” they are product, price, place, promotion, people, positioning, packaging” ‘Principles of marketing’, https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Principles_of_marketing
 „According to a 2015 Pew Research Centre study, the Christian population is expected to reach 3 billion by 2050 – that is 40% of the current world population. I don’t know of a brand that can claim to have 40% of the world population as market share?“ Jaysen Du Plessis, “3 Lessons from Jesus Christ, Marketing superstar”, 25 Sept. 2019,
 “The most sold book series to date has sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, Harry Potter by J.K. Rowling. In comparison the Bible, despite on-going attempts to burn it, ban it, and ridicule it throughout history, has had an estimated 6 billion copies printed with translations in more than 2,000 languages.” Jaysen Du Plessis, “3 Lessons from Jesus Christ, Marketing Superstar”, 25 Sept. 2019, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/3-lessons-from-jesus-christ-marketing-superstar-jaysen-du-plessis-
“The words he spoke are what we now call the Sermon on the Mount. It is the most luminous, most quoted, most analysed, most contested, and most influential moral and religious discourse in all of human history. This may sound like overstatement, but it is not. Jesus told the old story in his new way on many occasions. But on this mountain in Palestine, he gave it its most sequential and most systematic expression. It was his Fifth Symphony, his Mona Lisa, his masterpiece.” Harvey Cox When Jesus Came to Harvard: Making Moral Choices Today, Boston: Mariner Books; Reprint edition (August 16, 2006), p. 121.
Cf. Jaysen Du Plessis, “3 Lessons from Jesus Christ, Marketing superstar”, 25 Sept. 2019, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/3-lessons-from-jesus-christ-marketing-superstar-jaysen-du-plessis-
 “Marketing is a big business. From 2000–2006, Coca-Cola spent15.5 billion dollars to advertise their products to the global market. In 2009, Apple Computers spent half a billion dollars on their advertising, which is a third of what Microsoft paid out in 2009 (1.4 Billion). These leading companies invest incredible capital into these self-promotion schemes for the purpose of cashing in on the customers they solicit.” Davidsschrock, “God’s Marketing Strategy: Christ-Like Churches,” JUNE 3, 2015, https://davidschrock.com/2015/06/03/gods-marketing-strategy-christ-like-churches/
 The historian Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) “cannot think of any circumstances in which advertising would not be an evil.” Jerry Kirkpatrick, „A philosophic defense of advertising,“
 Jerry Kirkpatrick, „A philosophic defense of advertising,“
Jerry Kirkpatrick, „A philosophic defense of advertising,“
 “Screaming Eagle Cabernet 1992 – Costing a whopping $500,000 dollars for a single bottle, the most expensive wine in the world costs more than an average home!” By Matt McIntyre, “The 20 Most Expensive Wines In the World,” https://wealthygorilla.com/most-expensive-wines/
 Jerry Kirkpatrick, „A philosophic defense of advertising,“
 „Advertising“ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising
 “The Great Slave Auction,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Slave_Auction
 “Advertising”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising
 “Nazi Germany,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany
 Wikipedia, “Bread and circuses,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bread_and_circuses